EsquireDaily
Technology

New Study Explains How Human Brain Developed Differently Than Neanderthals

Experiments on mice have helped scientists identify some key differences in the development of brains in modern humans and our closest relative, Neanderthals. After our ancestors split from the Neanderthals, some one hundred amino acids underwent changes and spread to almost all modern humans. The reason behind this change had puzzled scientists all this while. However, six of the amino acid changes were found to have occurred in the three proteins that are instrumental in distributing chromosomes or the carriers of genetic material to the daughter cells during cell division in our body.

To dig deeper into the cause, researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Germany and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology have introduced modern human variants in mice. The six amino acid positions are the same in both mice and Neanderthals.

Hence, the mice provided the scientists with a model to study human brain development. “We found that three modern human amino acids in two of the proteins cause a longer metaphase, a phase where chromosomes are prepared for cell division, and this results in fewer errors when the chromosomes are distributed to the daughter cells of the neural stem cells, just like in modern humans,” explained geneticist Felipe Mora-Bermúdez. He is the lead author of the study published in Science Advances.

Investigating if the set of amino acids in Neanderthals had the opposite effect, researchers introduced ancestral amino acids in brain organoids. These are small organ-like structures that can be grown in cell culture dishes in the lab using human stem cells. Brain organoids mimic the aspects of early human brain development.

In this case, the team noted that the metaphase was shorter while the number of errors in chromosome distribution was also more. Mora-Bermúdez described that the amino acids in modern humans were responsible for fewer mistakes in chromosome distribution. “Having mistakes in the number of chromosomes is usually not a good idea for cells, as can be seen in disorders like trisomies and cancer,” said Mora-Bermudez.


For the latest tech news and reviews, follow Gadgets 360 on Twitter, Facebook, and Google News. For the latest videos on gadgets and tech, subscribe to our YouTube channel.

blank

Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 4 Colour, Integrated Storage Options Spotted on Official Site

Related posts

Elon Musk Asks Tesla Full Self-Driving Beta Tester to Stop Complaining About Bugs

Andrea Allin

Verizon to Acquire Prepaid Mobile Service Tracfone in $6.25 Billion Deal

Andrea Allin

Instagram Rolls Out a Multi-Story Carousal Redesign for Stories on Desktop

Andrea Allin

ChromeOS to Get New Editing and Productivity Tools, Coming to Chromebooks Starting August

Andrea Allin

iPhone 14 Pro Models Said to Offer 128GB Storage, Same as iPhone 13 Series

Andrea Allin

Multiple Assassin’s Creed Game Announcements to Be Made at Ubisoft Forward: Report

Andrea Allin

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More

Privacy & Cookies Policy